Nuclear Energy Without Nuclear Waste
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction explained
This section will discuss the inner workings of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in lay terms and provide scientific explanations for those so inclined.
Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction and radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts or lighter nuclei. The fission process often produces free neutrons and photons in the form of gamma rays and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at a very high speed and join to form a new type of atomic nucleus, in order to release the stored nuclear binding energy. However, due to the principal of the Coulomb Barrier, these two nuclei have a natural tendency to repel each other.
The Coulomb Barrier is the energy barrier, due to electrostatic interaction, that two nuclei need to overcome so they can get close enough to undergo a nuclear reaction. To overcome this force, nuclei have to collide at high velocities, so their kinetic energies drive them close enough for the strong interaction to take place and bind them together. Electrostatic interaction, is the binding energy that holds the electron in orbit.
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction is a third type of nuclear reaction and is distinctly different than both nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
Initially, LENR was thought to be violating some of the current laws of physics. However, over the years various theories have been developed, which explain how it actually fits within the Standard Model of Physics. These theories do not create or require any ‘new physics’ in order to understand the various reactions occurring within the process, they simply explain how it works.
The Widom-Larsen Theory is probably the mostly widely accepted today and is currently being explored by NASA
Initiating the reaction
For the purpose of discussion, think of nickel as a metal lattice which has the ability to absorb hydrogen atoms.
Initiating the LENR process is fairly straight forward. As an example and in its simplest form, one could take processed nickel, combine that with water or hydrogen gas, in a pressurized vessel and excite that mixture with either an electrical charge or electromagnetic pulse, thus beginning the reaction.
http://phys.org/print280487167.html Easy to follow overview of LENR by an employee of NASA
The following theories and processes go about Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in slightly different ways but end up with similar results – high energy gains with no nuclear waste.
Nickel and hydrogen atoms are configured as an atomic lattice. With the input of energy in the form of an electromagnetic pulse…
The creation of nuclear energy via the LENR process (in laymen’s terms)
Nickel and hydrogen atoms are configured as an atomic lattice. With the input of energy in the form of an electromagnetic pulse, the electrons and protons of the hydrogen atoms combine to form a cold neutron. This neutron is captured by the nucleus of the nickel and through a chain of nuclear reactions, the neutron decays into a proton, an electron and a neutrino. The electron is then emitted into an orbit around the nucleus of the nickel.
As a result of picking up an extra proton, the nickel is transmuted into another element such as copper. In addition, the various nuclear reaction processes are thought to excite and vibrate the atomic lattice. All of these reactions combined, produce vast amounts of energy.
Following is a more scientific explanation of the Widom-Larsen Theory which combines quantum electrodynamics, condensed matter, nuclear and plasma physics.
When an electromagnetic pulse is introduced, the electromagnetic radiation on the metallic hydride surface increases the mass of surface plasmon polariton electrons (SPP). The heavy-mass SPP electrons react directly with surface protons and deuterons and through inverse beta decay, combine to form an ultra-low-momentum (ULM) neutron and neutrino. In condensed matter LENR systems, heavy mass SPP electrons have a unique ability to absorb gamma rays and convert them directly to lower energy infrared photons.
The ULM neutron is captured by a nearby nucleus (nickel), and through a chain of nuclear reactions, produce either a new stable isotope or an isotope unstable to beta decay. When an unstable nucleus beta-decays, the neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton, an energetic electron and neutrino; the high energy electron is then emitted into a valence orbit around the nucleus of the nickel.
Because the number of protons in the nucleus has gone up by one, the atomic number has increased and results in the creation of a different element or transmutated product. In other words, the ULM neutron absorption produces a heavier-mass isotope via transmutation. The neutron-catalyzed, nucleosynthetic transmutation process releases large amounts of binding energy as energetic particles and photons that produce heat.
In addition, the various nuclear reaction processes are thought to excite and vibrate the atomic lattice, producing energy in the form of heat energy.
Given that the fundamental basis for the Widom-Larsen theory is a weak-interaction neutron creation and subsequent neutron-catalyzed nuclear reactions, rather than the fusing of deuterons, the Coulomb barrier problem that exists with fusion is irrelevant in this process.
In addition, the collective breakdown of the Born-Oppenheim Approximation allows SPP electrons to function as a ‘transducer’, which connects the otherwise disparate realms of chemical and nuclear energies.
Brillouin describes their process as a Controlled Electron Capture Reaction (CECR)…
Brillouin Energy’s technology converts the hydrogen in ordinary water to helium gas, a process that releases large amounts of useful heat. They describe their process as a Controlled Electron Capture Reaction (CECR).
Hydride forming elements such as Nickel, Palladium and Titanium can be viewed as akin to metallic ‘sponges’ that can absorb significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes.
LENRs can occur at modest temperatures and pressures in condensed matter because of collective electromagnetic coupling that occurs between two types of intrinsically collective oscillations found on metallic hydride surfaces.
The process starts by introducing hydrogen, most directly from ordinary water, into a suitable piece of nickel (or other metals) with the correct internal geometry. Brillouin’s proprietary electronic pulse generator then creates stress points in the metal where the applied energy is focused into very small spaces.
The concentrated energy allows some of the protons in the hydrogen to capture an electron, and thus becomes a neutron. This step converts a small amount of energy into mass in the neutron. Further pulses both create more neutrons and allow neutrons to combine with some of the hydrogen to form deuterium (a form of hydrogen with both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus). This combination step releases energy.
The process continues again, with some neutrons combining with deuterium to form tritium (hydrogen with one proton and two neutrons). This step releases still more energy.
Lastly, the process continues with some neutrons combining with the tritium to form quadrium (hydrogen with one proton and three neutrons). Since quadrium is not stable, it quickly turns into helium in a process that releases more energy than it took to create, in the preceding steps. (2.4 units of energy go in and 24 units come out). This released energy is initially absorbed by the metal element and made available as heat energy.
Blacklight Power has developed a slightly different process to achieve a low energy nuclear reaction…
Utilizing metal catalysts, the process is enticing the hydrogen electron into a lower state or half orbit, thus releasing the potential energy. This creates a smaller version of a hydrogen atom, or a hydrino. He claims hydrinos are ubiquitous and are possibly the makeup of dark matter.
Mills claims that ‘under controlled experiments certain chemicals may react catalytically with atomic hydrogen to generate a plasma, which emits ultraviolet light’. He also states that ‘the special plasma byproducts called hydrinos have been experimentally observed to have an energy state below the ground state of hydrogen’.
Mills Hydrino theory is controversial and has been questioned by some – the concept of Hydrinos is new. However, his process is very innovative. Utilizing photovoltaic technology, his system converts the brilliant light energy from the plasma, directly to electricity.
It was written, “no experimental evidence was offered by Mills at the time to support his claims which violate accepted nuclear physics“." It was also written in the early 1900s that “an object heavier than air couldn’t possibly fly”.
In 2012 after investigating the BLP process, both Meritorious Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry Dr. K.V. Ramanujachary of Rowan University and Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of California, Santa Barbara, W. Henry Weinberg, claimed that the BLP process is legitimate. In addition, there are physicists worldwide researching and publishing on this science.
Whether you agree with his hydrino theory, or not, in his 54,000 sq foot facility, funded to the tune of $70 million by various investors, he has publicly demonstrated working units, producing millions of watts of power - perhaps he is on to something.
Other theories include, the Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion Theory, Hagelstein Theory, Bazhutov-Vereshkov Theory, Chubb Scott Theory, Fisher Theory, Gareev Theory and the Hora-Miley Theory
LENR is an extremely complicated interdisciplinary technology which encompasses:
It is possible that the unification of all or some of the theories mentioned will account for how the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction process works – whatever the case, it is real and here to stay. (when Og discovered fire, they didn’t know how it worked, but they sure liked the taste of a grilled Wooly Mammoth Burger).
Regardless of the theory or theories, to which you may subscribe, a vast amount of potential energy contained within the hydrogen atom is being released, which is converted into heat energy or directly into electricity, without producing any harmful nuclear waste
The whole of science consists of data, that at one time or another, were inexplicable. The earth is flat and we are the center of the universe – everybody knows that.
“Hydrogen has a lot of Potential”
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